Native to eastern U.S. Grows very fast as a sapling but slows once it hits 810 feet Give it plenty of room, since it will ultimately reach 60100 feet tall and 4550 feet wide. Provides year-round interest, featuring attractive foliage as well as striking branch structure. Leaves are 1123 feet long, divided into many 1- to 3 inches leaflets; they are pinkish when emerging late in spring, deep bluish green by summer. In leaf, the tree casts light shade. Fall color usually not effective, but foliage sometimes turns bright yellow. The relatively few, heavy, contorted branches and stout twigs make the bare tree picturesque in winter.
Male and female plants are separate. Narrow, creamy to greenish white flower panicles at ends of branches in spring are up to 1 feet long (and fragrant) on female trees, to 4 inches long on males. Blossoms on female trees are followed by flat, 6- to 10 inches-long, reddish brown pods containing hard black seeds. Pods persist through winter. Early settlers roasted the seeds to make a coffee substitute, hence the tree's common name. (Roasting neutralizes the seeds' toxicity.) Grows best in moist, rich, deep soil but adapts to poor soil, drought, city conditions. Can take much heat and cold. Needs minimal pruning.
Three maleand therefore seedlesskinds are sometimes offered at garden centers; all have potential for use as street trees. 'Espresso' grows to 50 feet tall, 30 feet wide, has an attractive spreading form and vase shape. 'Prairie Titan' may reach 6070 feet tall, 3040 ft wide; it has particularly good-looking foliage. 'J.C. McDaniel' ('Stately Manor') grows in a narrow and upright form, to 50 feet tall and only 20 feet wide; good street tree.