LUPINE

FAMILY: Papilionaceae | GENUS: LUPINUS

TYPE
  • Annuals
  • Perennials
SUN EXPOSURE
  • Full Sun
WATER
  • Varies by Species

Plant Details

There are hundreds of lupine species, many of them native to the southwestern U.S.; they're found in a wide range of habitats, from alpine rocks to beach sand. Leaves are divided into many leaflets (like fingers of a hand). Sweet peashaped flowers are borne in dense spikes at stem ends. Most lupines take poor soil, but hybrids prefer rich, slightly acidic, well-drained soil.

lupinus hartwegii

  • Annual.
  • Zones US, MS, LS, CS, TS; USDA 6-11.
  • Native to Mexico.
  • Grows 13 feet tall, with flowers in shades of blue, white, and pink.
  • Easy to grow from seed sown in place in spring for summer bloom.
  • Moderate water.

lupinus havardii, L

  • subcarnosus, Lupinus texensis.
  • BLUEBONNET.
  • Annuals.
  • Zones MS, LS, CS; USDA 7-9.
  • All require poor, dry soil to survive; with regular flower border pampering, these Texas roadside flowers rot.
  • For small areas, set out plants in fall to flower the following April.
  • For meadows, scatter treated seeds (see Help in the Nick of Time, at right) onto moist ground in September and lightly rake the soil surface; keep soil moist only until seeds germinate.
  • Replant or resow each fall for several years; seed from current year's flowers does not germinate reliably to produce next spring's floral display.
  • Adequate fall and winter rains are necessary to produce spectacular spring show.

lupinus havardii, Big Bend bluebonnet, is the tallest bluebonnet, reaching 34 feet

  • high; its flowers are very deep blue.
  • Lupinus subcarnosus, the state flower of Texas, grows to 1 feet tall, has sky-blue flowers with a tinge of white.
  • Lupinus texensis, Texas bluebonnet, to 1 feet tall, has dark blue flowers with a white eye that turns red after pollen is no longer viable, signaling bees not to visit plant.

lupinus hybrids

  • Perennials often treated as annuals.
  • Zone US; USDA 6.
  • To 45 feet tall, 2 feet wide.
  • These English-bred hybrid groups are descended from plants native to western America.
  • Their dislike of summer heat and humidity makes them hard to grow in the South, even in the Upper South.
  • Plant them in fall, be grateful for the flowers they produce the following yearand don't expect more than that.
  • Self-sown seedlings won't resemble parents.
  • Regular water.

Russell hybridsthe classic lupinesbloom during late spring or early summer, bearing tall flower spikes in white, cream, yellow, pink, red, orange, blue, purple, or bicolors

  • Little Lulu and Minarette are small strainsto 1 feet high and wide.
  • All Russell hybrids tend to be short lived.
  • They are prone to powdery mildew, so provide good air circulation.
  • Grow from seed or buy nursery plants.

New Generation hybrids have all the merits of the Russell hybrids (from which they were developed), but they are sturdier (needing no staking) and mildew resistant

  • They also come in a wider range of brighter, more intense colors, including interesting bicolors such as yellow-and-orange combinations.
  • Bloom period is longer, too.
  • Sold as seedling plants.

wild lupine

lupinus perennis

  • Perennial.
  • Zones US, MS, LS, CS; USDA 6-9.
  • Native to eastern U.S. To 2 feet high, with purple flowers in late spring or early summer.
  • Regular water.

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